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Copyright and publishing

Use of other author's works (whether somebody else’s or author’s own creation)

Use by author

Author must be entitled to dispose of the work

  • The exclusive license must have not been provided to anybody else.
  • In the case of work with multiple authors, consent of all co-authors is needed.
  • Employee works – unless otherwise stated, the employer has the property rights to works created in the course of employment.
  • For commissioned works, it depends on the terms set out in the agreement.
  • In some cases, property rights to the works are held by collective managers.

Use by another person

  • With author’s consent
    • License agreement, Creative Commons license
    • Simple consent (sufficient by e-mail)
  • Without author’s consent/ legal reason – there are legal restrictions and exceptions, where copyrighted works may be used without the author’s consent and without violating author’s copyright.
    • Free use – personal use of the work is not considered to be the use of the work by law (i.e. making a recording, copy or limitation of the work, not for commercial purposes!).
    • Free work – copyright protection already expired.
    • Exceptions to the law/ licenses – stated exhaustively in the Copyright Act (including citations).
  • Without legal grounds – unauthorized use (plagiarism)

  Notice: Copyright is territorial and applied differently in different countries.


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